12th century India witnessed a great change in every aspects of life of Indian people. After the victory of Mohammedans in battle of tarain they had introduced a new type of monarchy which functioned as a representative govt of God and it's head was called as Sultan.

They established new departments for running the administration of their newly conquered land and developed a revenue system which was inspired by the Islamic law.

To run these departments and administration they introduced new offices for the proper functioning of their Sultanate. Many of these administrative offices and departments kept functioning even during the times of Mughals too.

Important terms from medieval India for upsc

Today we will share a list of those departments , offices, ministries which existed under sultanate and later during Mughal times also.

Apart from history lovers this list might also be helpful for those who are preparing for UPSC or state PSC exams as questions in history section are frequently asked from these terms.

List of Offices/departments/ministries during Sultanate and Mughal era.
  1. Amir- The officer of 3rd highest rank, or a nobleman.
  2. Amir-i-akhur- Officer in charge of royal stable.
  3. Amir-i-dad- Officer in charge of justice implementation.
  4. Amir-i-majlis- Officer in charge of Pvt assembly.
  5. Amir-i-hajib- Protocol officer of royal court.
  6. Amalgujar- revenue collector.
  7. Amil- revenue collector.
  8. Amin- Officer who assessed revenue of a land.
  9. Diwan-i-ariz- Ministry of battles/war
  10. Arij-i-mumalik- Office incharge of administration of army.
  11. Mir-Bakshi- Commander in chief of mughal army.
  12. Barid- Officer in charge of intelligence.
  13. Diwan - Ministry/ Royal court.
  14. Diwan-i-khalisa- Crown lands.
  15. Diwan-i-wizarat- Imperial revenue ministry.
  16. Diwan-i-kohi- Department of agriculture started by Mohammed bin Tughlaq.
  17. Inam- rent free land.
  18. Insha- Department of correspondence/post.
  19. Iqta- land assignment instead of salary, called Jagir during Mughal era. 
  20. Khanqah- a Sufi shrine.
  21. Kotwal- officer in charge of Police system.
  22. Muhtasib- Officer of public morality.
  23. Muqaddam- Chief of Village.
  24. Khut- Village Headman.
  25. Mushrifi-i-mamalik- Accountant General of Imperial revenue.
  26. Mustawfi-yi-Mamalik- Officer who audited expenditures of sultanate.
  27. Mutasarrif- revenue collector in province.
  28. Naubat - band music played infront of royal palaces.
  29. Paik- infantryman.
  30. Quriltai- Assembly of Mongol chiefs.
  31. Pil-khana- royal stable for elephants.
  32. Diwan-i-Ton- Office in charge of salaries.
  33. Sar-i-jandar- Commander of Sultans guard.
  34. Sar-i-silahdar- Chief armour bearer.
  35. Shihna- a Mongol resident in foreign court.
  36. Shihna-i-bargah- Officer in charge of audience hall.
  37. Shihna-i-manda- Officer in charge of markets.
  38. Pil- officer in charge of elephant force.
  39. Shiqq- an administrative division.
  40. Wali- Governor
  41. Wajahdar- regular troops that were paid in assignment of land.
  42. Faujdar- police officer of district , ensured no peasant revolts or deny revenue payment.
  43. Mir saman- officer in charge of imperial household, maintains storehouse.
  44. Nazim- administrator of criminal law.
  45. Sanad - a character or grant.
  46. Subah- a Mughal province
  47. Sircar- a subdivision under a Mughal subah.
Some taxes of Medieval India.
  1. Ghari-  taxes on houses introduced by Alauddin khilji .
  2. Charah- tax on grassland for grazing animals also introduced by Alauddin khilji.
  3. Kharaz- a tax on the agricultural produce on the land that belonged to non Muslims introduced by Firoz shah Tughlaq.
  4. Ushra- tax levied on agriculture produce of muslim lands.
  5. Jizya- tax paid by non Muslims for protection.
  6. Zakat- tax paid by Muslims for charity. It was 2.5% of their total income.
  7. Khams- a tax on the booty captured in a war/plunder or tresure unearthed. it was 1/5th of the booty. 

For list of important terms from 
ancient India please click here.

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