Formation of peasants organisations in various regions in 1930s

Peasant movements India


Karshak Sanghams

Andhra  Pradesh

Zamin ryots association
Indian peasants institute Run by N.G.Ranga in AP
Provincial Kisan conference.
Organization of summer schools of economics and politics for teaching peasants activists. (P.C.Joshi , Ajoy Ghosh)


Bihar provincial Kisan Sabha  (Swami Sahajanand)
Fight with congress ministry over Bakasht land(those lands which the occupancy tenants had lost to zamindars due to non payment of rent)


Naujawan bharat sabha, Kirti Kisan, congress and akalis gave birth to Kisan sabhas.
Punjab Kisan committee in 1937 main demand was the reduction of tax and moratorium over debts. Attack was against the Unionist party which was headed by zamindars and big landlords.


Under Bankim Mukherji peasants of burdwan agitated against the enhancement of canal tax on the Damodar canal.


Surma valley no-rent struggle continued for six months against zamindari oppression. Karuna sindhu roy led campaign against tenancy law.


Utkal provincial kisan sabha organized by Malati chowdhury in 1935.


Main demand was the abolition of the system of HALI(Bonded labour)

Central Provinces

Kisan sabha protested against malguzari system.

All peasant organisations had common demands

The mobilization of peasants on large scale demanded  security of tenure , abolition of feudal levies , reduction of taxes and debt relief.

All india kisan sabha

To form an all india farmer body AIKS was formed in 1936 With the lucknow session of congress Sahjanand saraswati elected first president. It included leaders like Ranga, Namboodiripad, Karyanand Sharma, Yamuna Karjee, Yadunandan (Jadunandan) Sharma, Rahul Sankrityayan . 

The Kisan Manifesto released in August 1936, demanded abolition of the zamindari system and cancellation of rural debts, and in October 1937, it adopted red flag as its banner . Communist influence started growing and soon in 1942 became part of communist party of india and stayed away from the quit india movement in 1942.

Slowdown of peasant activism

World war II broke out in 1939 and congress ministries resigned but since hitler decide to attack soviet union AIKS supported British war efforts on the party line of communist party of india.

A rift in AIKS came during the quit india movement as the communist stayed away from it but non communist members participated in the movement. 

Kisan sabha spilt in 1943 major kisan leaders like N.G.Ranga , Sahajanand saraswati and Indulal yagnik left the organization. Kisan sabha played an important ole in the Bengal famine of 1943 helped to lessen the food and essential goods supply.

Post War peasant struggle

Tebhaga of Bengal  in 1946 peasants began to assert that they wont pay ½ share of their crop to the jotedars but only 1/3rd  and that before division would be stored in their godowns and not the jotedars godowns. The movement was encouraged from the fact that floud commission or Bengal land revenue commission had recommended that to the govt. 

It was led by Bengal provincial kisan sabha. The peasants forcefully tried to shift the stored paddy from the jotedars godowns to their own godowns and jotedars took help of polce in clashes 20 peasants killed and with heavy repression movement finally ended.

Impact of Peasant movements on freedom struggle

  •  Created an environment which made early legislations possible for Land Reforms in independent india.
  •  Gave strength and helped further politicization of people in the movement when congress was busy holding ministries.
  • These movements corroded the power of the landed class and prepared the ground for future transformations.
  • People’s enrollement under kisan sabha and congress increased.

Special Tag
Notes from Bipin Chandra Freedom Struggle .

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